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The new settlement, which guaranteed religious tolerance attracted settlers from all other Europe, often composed of religious minorities, such as Quakers, French Huguenots (French Protestants), Amish and Mennonites. In 1682, Penn left England, seeking to help build the city he planned for on paper. He was an instrumental figure in implementing his theoretical policy ideas. Penn combined both idealism, bordering on utopianism, but also practical realism. Almost there poster. Where necessary he sought a practical solution, whilst still trying to retaining his belief in liberal government. Penn implemented a more liberal justice system. Capital punishment was only implemented for two crimes of murder and treason (there were 200 capital offences in England). He also sought to make prisons progressive places of rehabilitation rather than places of punishment. Quakers were also leading figures in the treatment of mental illness, decriminalising it. Through the widespread provision of education, Pennsylvania blossomed as a centre of commerce and science. Penn also implemented strict ‘puritanical’ laws on ‘immoral activities’ banning cockfighting, gambling, and setting laws on drunkenness, swearing and lying.

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The settlement was helped by a legacy from Charles II, who felt he had a large debt with Penn’s father and was willing to provide a remarkably generous area for these political and religious dissenters (Charles possibly saw this as a good way to be rid of troublemakers). The new settlement was term Penn (after Sir William Penn) and Sylvania (woods) With this Royal endowment and successful bargaining, Penn gained an area of 45,000 acres of land The model town implemented freedom of worship (for those who believed in God) and the pioneering laws of free elections, fair trials and a separation of political powers. Ideas in the Pennsylvania Frame of Government (1682) would form the basis of the American constitution. Penn’s philosophy for separation of powers was based on his desire to reduce the scope for one man’s tyrannical rule. He said the constitution would leave him or future men with.

In 1764, he married Abigail Smith. They had grown close because of a shared interest in literature, politics and philosophy. Throughout their marriage, they shared frank views, and Adams frequently valued the honest and candid advice of his wife. At the time, because of women’s position in society, it was unusual to have a marriage of equals, but their mutual respect and compatibility was an important strand in Adam’s personal and political life. Although Adams was brought up with strong British loyalties, he became a noted critic of British policies in the colonies. He studied the writing of James Otis criticising the British Writs of Association (which allowed the British to search a home without notice or reason). Almost there poster. But, it was Adams opposition to the Stamp Act which made him well known in Massachusetts. The Stamp Act was a very unpopular system of levying taxes on stamped documents. It was enforced by unrepresentative military courts and was used — not to finance spending in the colonies — but to finance the British war against France. In 1765, he authored the Braintree Instructions, which argued the Act should be opposed because it denied colonists two important freedoms — the right to be taxed by consent and the right to be judged by one’s peers.

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The overwhelming opposition to the acts led the British to annul the Stamp Act in 1766. However, tensions with Britain were not reduced for long. In 1767, the Townshend Act implemented another series of unpopular measures against the colonies, and this led to an increase in popular protest. On 5 March 1770, the protests boiled over, and when several British soldiers were surrounded by violent protestors, they opened fire, killing five protestors. It became known as the Boston Massacre. Feelings were running high, and the British soldiers were arrested for murder. No lawyer would take their case; such was the resentment against the British. By now, Adams was the most high profile lawyer in Boston. Because he believed passionately in the right of everyone to have representation and a fair trial, he agreed to represent the British soldiers, even though it made him unpopular with public opinion.The case became an important exposition of Adams skill as a lawyer and even more importantly, certain principles of justice and fairness. Adams was skilful in selecting a jury which included many more sympathetic to loyalist sympathies and challenging those with more anti-British feeling. In the case, he powerfully laid out an argument that the soldiers could not be found guilty of murder because they cornered by an angry mob, throwing objects at them. Adams also made a passionate plea that.

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